Leadership and management traits and theories

The adaptive leader knows that change and learning can be painful for people, and is able to anticipate and counteract any reluctant behavior related to the pain. This can be a great resource. More than different traits of successful leaders in various leadership positions have been identified.

The premise of this stream of research was that the behaviors exhibited by leaders are more important than their physical, mental, or emotional traits. Alters our need level after Maslow and expands our range of wants and needs. And how, you may ask, is this different from situational theory?

Successful leaders definitely have interests, abilities, and personality traits that are different from those of the less effective leaders. The Ohio State studies utilized the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire LBDQadministering it to samples of individuals in the military, manufacturing companies, college administrators, and student leaders.

Path-goal theory has been criticized because it does not consider interactions among the contingency factors and also because of the complexity of its underlying theoretical model, expectancy theory.

An example would be in which a man and a woman were hired at the same time and with the same skills, but the woman isn't getting invited to the golf club, and the man is. My goal here is to provide an overview that keeps things simple, without crossing into over-simplification, and for the most part refraining from any critiquing of the various theories.


The situation is most favorable when followers respect and trust the leader, the task is highly structured, and the leader has control over rewards and punishments. The theory is very complex Implications of Trait Theory The trait theory gives constructive information about leadership.

Leadership Styles

They tend to be involved in important activities and decisions. Scholars taking the trait approach attempted to identify physiological appearance, height, and weightdemographic age, education and socioeconomic backgroundpersonality, self-confidence, and aggressivenessintellective intelligence, decisiveness, judgment, and knowledgetask-related achievement drive, initiative, and persistenceand social characteristics sociability and cooperativeness with leader emergence and leader effectiveness.

Trait Theory of Leadership Trait Theory of Leadership The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to predict leadership effectiveness.

This theory makes the manager aware of their strengths and weaknesses and thus they get an understanding of how they can develop their leadership qualities.

These included the trait approach s and sthe behavioral approach s and sand the contingency or situational approach s and s. Chapters look at the nature of leadership; leadership and management; leadership qualities; leader behaviour; styles of leadership; recruiting and selecting future leaders; the developing process; cultural differences and diversity; role models; the new leadership.

Behavioral Theories of Leadership

I hope that others will share their thoughts on whether this list neglects any theories of note. Partially as a result of the disenchantment with the trait approach to leadership that occurred by the beginning of the s, the focus of leadership research shifted away from leader traits to leader behaviors.

Transformational leadership is effective in bringing in new ideas to a company and to help build a positive corporate culture in which employees enjoy coming to work. Situational leadership theory has been criticized on both theoretical and methodological grounds.

Without these they will not have the information and resources to do their job. The Michigan leadership studies took place at about the same time as those at Ohio State.


More inclusive and informal understandings of leadership offer some interesting possibilities, as we can see in our discussion of shared leadership. They look for high levels of productivity, and ways to organize people and activities in order to meet those objectives.

Another way of putting this is that particular contexts would demand particular forms of leadership. Characteristics of subordinates that may substitute for leadership include ability, experience, training, and job-related knowledge.

Servant Leadership Theory This conceptualization of leadership reflects a philosophy that leaders should be servants first. Empirical research has supported many of the theory's propositions.Behavioral theory promotes the value of leadership styles with an emphasis on concern for people and collaboration.

It promotes participative decision making and team development by supporting individual needs and aligning individual and group objectives. Behavioral Theories of Leadership, also known as “The style approach to leadership.

There is a wide and ever growing variety of theories to explain the concept and practice of leadership. I will provide a brief overview of the more dominant or better known theories.

Introduction. After several decades of leadership research that attempted to identify the specific and unique traits characteristic of those in supervisory positions, academic research shifted to pursue the patterns of behavior exhibited by those who were influential in and around positions of formal leadership.

Most approaches to explaining leadership effectiveness focus on either leader traits (e.g. personality, intelligence, gender) or leader behaviors (e.g. directive, participative, charismatic, servant leadership). Both approaches have been shown to have merit, but how do traits and behaviors work together, and is one approach better than the other?

In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.

David McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well. ) Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 5 No. 2 Leadership: do traits matter? Shelley A. Kirkpatrick and Edwin A.

Trait leadership

Locke, University of Maryland.

Leadership and management traits and theories
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